Mkwawa Journal of Education and Development (MJED)
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1. TitleTafsiri ya Majina Maalumu ya Kibantu: Umuhimu na Changamoto, Vol. 1, Issue 1
Abstract
Katika mchakato wa kufanya tafsiri ya matini kutoka lugha chanzi kwenda lugha lengwa, mara nyingi majina maalumu hayatafsiriwi. Makala haya ya uchokozi yanajaribu kufafanua kuwa majina mengi ya Wabantu, ya mahali, na ya vitu mbalimbali yana maana maalumu kama vile kuonesha tabia au hali ya mtu, kuonesha tabia au hali ya watu wa ukoo fulani au watu wa mahali fulani. Pia, majina mengi maalumu ya mahali yanatumika kuonesha tabia na matumizi ya eneo fulani kama vile sehemu ya mito, misitu, mapango, milima au vilele vya milima. Mbinu mahuluti zilitumika kupata data katika makala haya. Kwanza, ni mbinu ya maktabani; na pili, ni mbinu ya uwandani. Kwa kuzingatia mwega wa kisemantiki na kiisimujamii, data ziliwasilishwa na kuchambuliwa ili kuibua maana zinazoambatana na majina hayo. Makala haya yanahoji kuwa kuna maarifa mengi muhimu yanayoweza kupatikana kwa kutafsiriwa majina maalumu ya Kibantu. Tafsiri ya majina maalumu ya Kibantu inaweza kuelimisha jamii kuhusu historia ya mahali na watu wake, shughuli na mahusiano ya kijamii, ya kiuchumi, ya kisiasa, ya kiutamaduni, ya kiimani, na ya kisayansi na teknolojia. Makala yanahitimisha kwamba kama tunataka kupata maarifa jumuishi juu ya yale yaliyomo katika matini chanzi, hasa kuhusiana na maana ya majina maalumu, hatuna budi kutafsiri majina hayo kwa wingi kadiri inavyowezekana.

K/Words

tafsiri; majina maalumu; kibantu; changamoto

Author

Focus - Nchimbi

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10 April 2019 [ 1 Year Ago ]

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2. TitleUwi ni Sifa ya Ujumi wa Kiafrika? Mifano kutoka Diwani ya Mnyampala, Mashairi ya Saadan na Kivuli cha Mvumo, Vol. 2, Issue 1
Abstract
Uwi ni dhana ya kiujumi inayowatatiza watu wengi kwa sababu huko nyuma ujumi ulijulikana kama uzuri. Jamii mbalimbali ulimwenguni zina aina mbalimbali za ujumi. Afrika ina aina mahsusi za ujumi ambazo hutambulishwa na vipengele anuwai katika sanaa zake. Makala hii inaangazia uthibitisho wa kuwa uwi ni sifa ya kiujumi wa Waafrika. Aidha, data zilizotumika katika makala hii zimekusanywa kwa njia ya maktaba iliyohusisha usomaji wa vitabu, makala na tasnifu. Njia hii ilitumika kwa sababu ya kupata data za upili na kubaini mapengo yaliyojitokeza katika tafiti zilizotangulia. Vitabu teuli ni vya mashairi kutoka diwani tatu ambazo ni Diwani ya Mnyampala ya Mathias Mnyampala, Mashairi ya Saadan ya Saadan Kandoro na Kivuli cha Mvumo ya Rashid Mfaume yamehusishwa kama rejea kuthibitisha kuwa uwi ni sifa ya ujumi wa Waafrika. Nadharia ya Unegritudi inayokitwa katika mikabala ya Kiafrika, ndiyo iliyoongoza mjadala wa matokeo wa makala hii. Imethibitika kuwa uwi ni kitu cha kiujumi hivyo kinapaswa kumakinikiwa kwa namna iliyo sawa na uzuri.

K/Words

Ujumi; Uwi; Waafrika; Idili

Author

Birigitha Ngwano John

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21 October 2019 [ 11 Months Ago ]

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3. TitleDhamira za Maandishi ya Kuta za Vyooni Jijini Dar es Salaam, Vol. 1, Issue 1
Abstract
Makala haya yanahusu dhamira za maandishi, hususani ya vyooni Jijini Dar es Salaam. Lengo ni kuangalia dhamira za maandishi hayo na nafasi yake kwa jamii. Katika uchambuzi tumetathmini ubunifu unaojitokeza katika maandishi hayo. Aidha, kwa kutumia mbinu za utafiti maktabani kama vile uchambuzi matini na mbinu za uwandani, tulipata data muafaka kuhusu suala la kiutafiti lililoshughulikiwa katika makala haya. Pia, tumedurusu maandiko mbalimbali yanayozungumzia dhamira katika maandishi yaliyoandikwa sehemu mbalimbali na namna lugha ilivyotumika kutoa mawasiliano. Aidha, tumetumia nadharia ya Elimu-mitindo ambayo ndiyo inayoongoza uchambuzi na mjadala katika makala haya. Hali kadhalika, kutokana na utafiti huu, imebainika kuwa dhamira zilizojitokeza zaidi ni zile zinazohusu maradhi, maarifa, maadili na dini. Ilibainika pia kuwa dhamira hizi zinaakisi muundo na mfumo wa maisha ya jamii husika. Kutokana na matokeo haya, imehitimishwa kuwa ubunifu uliopo kwenye maandiko ya vyooni unasawiri hali mbalimbali katika jamii kama vile mtazamo wa wanajamii kuhusu maana na umuhimu wa elimu, dini, maadili na utamaduni kwa ujumla. Hatimaye, katika makala haya tutaona jinsi lugha safihi (matumizi ya lugha yasiyo na adabu) inavyojitokeza katika maandishi ya vyooni.

K/Words

dhamira; ubunifu; elimu-mitindo; maandiko ya vyooni; lugha safihi

Author

Willy - Migodela

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10 April 2019 [ 1 Year Ago ]

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4. TitleMustakabali wa Kiswahili kama Lugha ya Kufundishia Nchini Tanzania: Uhakiki wa Maudhui ya Sera ya Elimu na Mafunzo ya 2014, Vol. 1, Issue 1
Abstract
Msingi wa makala haya ni "Sera ya Elimu na Mafunzo" (SEM, 2014). Makala yanahakiki nafasi ya lugha ya Kiswahili kwenye Sera ya Elimu na Mafunzo nchini Tanzania na mustakabali wake kwenye mfumo wa elimu kama lugha ya kufundishia. Mbinu iliyotumika ni ya maktabani ambapo mwandishi alisoma na kuhakiki maudhui ya SEM msisitizo ukiwa kwenye masuala yahusuyo lugha ya kufundishia. Uchambuzi wa kiisimujamii ulitumika ili kuonesha ukinzani baina ya matamko ya SEM. Tamko la SEM kuhusu lugha ya Kiswahili kama lugha ya kufundishia haliakisi hali halisi. Uhusiano wa Kiisimujamii wa lugha ya Kiswahili na ya Kiingereza kuhusu elimu unatoa tafsiri kuwa endapo SEM itatumika bila nia ya dhati ya kuisaidia lugha ya Kiswahili basi lugha hiyo inaweza kutoweka kabisa kwenye mfumo wa elimu kama lugha ya kufundishia. Makala yanajenga hoja kuwa tamko la SEM kwamba Kiingereza na Kiswahili ziwe na hadhi sawa kwenye mfumo wa elimu linatia moyo kwa mustakabali wa lugha ya Kiswahili lakini utekelezaji wake unaibua changamoto nyingi kwa namna ambayo zisipotazamwa kwa makini lugha ya Kiingereza itaendelea kukita mizizi zaidi na kujenga uwezekano wa jamii kukataa kufundishwa kwa lugha ya Kiswahili kwa sababu mwelekeo wa jamii unanasibisha elimu na Kiingereza. Mwisho, wito unatolewa kwa watunga sera kusitisha kutumia lugha ya wachache kutoa elimu kwa wengi kwa kuwa kufanya hivyo ni kubadili malengo ya elimu.

K/Words

sera ya elimu; sera ya lugha; lugha ya kufundishia; Tanzania

Author

Gervas A. Kawonga

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10 April 2019 [ 1 Year Ago ]

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5. TitleThe Swahili Noun Phrase in its Sentential Aspect, Vol. 1, Issue 1
Abstract
This paper articulates the syntactic properties of nouns in Swahili in relation to functional projections which are associated with both concord in determiner phrases and agreement in inflectional phrases. With regards to realisation of syntactic properties in Bantu noun phrases, three claims had been suggested based on different approaches, vis-à-vis the use of pre-prefix to denote discourse-based information about (in)definiteness, indication of phi-features in minimalist syntax by using the nominal prefix, and determination by demonstratives and possessives as supported by head proximity principle. Findings from Swahili texts point towards the fact that bare nouns receive either definite interpretation or indefinite reading depending on the context of communication. Therefore, the definite' indefinite distinction is not provided by physical linguistic materials, but by discourse-based contexts. Even when a demonstrative and/or possessive is used, it is the context of communication which situates the specific referent rather than the lexical entities. Findings indicate that the choice between demonstratives and possessives in determinations of Swahili NPs is also context bound.

K/Words

noun phrase; determination; definiteness; word order; Swahili

Author

Amani - Lusekelo

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07 April 2019 [ 1 Year Ago ]

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6. TitleMaasai Girls' Education Aspirations and Socio-Cultural Constraints: Reflections from Monduli Tanzania, Vol. 1, Issue 1
Abstract
The study aimed to explore the Maasai girls' education aspirations and the social cultural constraints they face in their effort towards acquiring formal education in Monduli, Tanzania. Capability Approach (CA) was used to guide the understanding of girls' education aspirations. The study employed ethnographic research design by involving 30 participants across the community, including elders, parents, traditional leaders, children (school and out-of-school) and the district education officer. Participant observations and ethnographic interviews were used to collect data for a period of three months. Data were analysed thematically. As a result, the study revealed that girls and some other members in the Maasai society had positive views about girls' education. Girls had education aspirations of acquiring specific careers like being nurses, teachers and doctors. Their aspirations were, however, constrained by some traditional beliefs and practices such as early marriage, girls' circumcision and esoto (a night dance between young girls and the Moran). These traditional beliefs made the Maasai girls' aspirations unfulfilled as they slowly found themselves accustomed to these traditional arrangements while losing the ability to develop capabilities they would need to attain their education aspirations. The study, thus, argues that obstacles that hinder attainment of girls' aspirations on education need to be eliminated from the community. Formal education should enhance girl's agency in order to develop the capabilities they need for their social functioning.

K/Words

Maasai; girls' education; education aspirations; constrains to girls' education; Tanzania

Author

Adela R. Mtey

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10 April 2019 [ 1 Year Ago ]

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7. TitleKiswahili Katika Taathira ya Kihistoria na Mielekeo ya Kisiasa kama Lugha ya Kufundishia, Vol. 2, Issue 1
Abstract
Makala hii inahusu Kiswahili katika taathira ya kihistoria na mielekeo ya kisiasa kama lugha ya kufundishia elimu ya juu hapa nchini Tanzania. Makala hii inaeleza mambo yanayosababisha mielekeo tofauti ya watu kuhusu upokezi na matumizi ya lugha ya Kiswahili kama lugha ya kufundishia elimu ya juu nchini Tanzania ili kushurutisha ukubalifu wake. Baadhi ya masuala yanayochunguzwa ni yale yanayotiliwa shaka kuhusu uwezo wa lugha ya Kiswahili kumudu na kukidhi harakati za mahitaji ya kufundishia elimu ya juu, pamoja na kupitisha teknolojia mpya inayoinukia katika nyanja za sayansi na teknolojia. Aidha, makala hii inanuia kufafanua ukubalifu, pamoja na msingi wa mielekeo ya Watanzania kutoipatia kipaumbele lugha ya Kiswahili kama lugha inayoweza kukidhi mahitaji ya kufundishia elimu ya juu hapa nchini. Data za msingi katika makala hii zilipatikana maktabani kwa kudurusu nyaraka mbalimbali zilizohusiana na mada iliyolengwa. Mapitio ya nyaraka mbalimbali zilizotumika kushadidia data za msingi za mada iliyochunguzwa zilipatikana katika maktaba ya chuo kikuu cha Kikatoliki cha Ruaha iliyopo Iringa. Makala hii inahitimisha kwamba lugha za kigeni na zile za kiasili zinaweza kuendelea kutumika pamoja katika ngazi zote za elimu ili kuziwezesha kutekeleza vema dhima zake.

K/Words

Taathira; Taathira ya kihistoria; Mielekeo ya kisiasa; Lugha ya kufundishia

Author

Gerephace - Mwangosi

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21 October 2019 [ 11 Months Ago ]

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8. TitleEmerging Street Youth Violent Groups in Musoma: What is the Role of Individual Parents' Socio-Economic Status (SES)? , Vol. 1, Issue 1
Abstract
This study presents findings regarding violence among emerging street youth violent groups in Musoma, Tanzania using a total sample of 94 (M = 20.02 years, SD = 4.05) respondents purposefully selected from four violent groups. Specific objectives included: examining the variation in violence involvement among the violent groups; establishing the level of relationship between individual parents' SES and the level of violent behaviour among the members of the violent groups; and examining to determine if individual parents' SES is a significant predictor of the development of violence among members of the violent groups. Findings revealed higher level of involvement in violent behaviours among groups (M = 70.85, SD = 11.14). The ANOVA results indicated a statistical significant difference [F (3, 90) = 6.035, p = 0.001] in the mean scores of the level of involvement in violent behaviour among the violent groups comprised of members drawn from different socio-economic status. The contribution of parents' socio-economic status (SES) on individual's violent behaviours measured by multiple regression analysis was weak (R² =.112, p =.161). Thus, parents' SES is a weak and non-statistical significant predictor for individual's involvement in violence and violent acts. Thus, immediate intervention programmes such as establishment of rehabilitation centres and counselling services is recommended.

K/Words

youth; youth violence; aggression; SES, Musoma; Tanzania

Author

Faustine Bwire Masath

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10 April 2019 [ 1 Year Ago ]

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9. TitleDoes going abroad benefit my country? Views of highly skilled personnel from Sub-Saharan Africa on brain drain-brain circulation , Vol. 2, Issue 1
Abstract
The debate on brain drain-brain circulation has been a long-lasting phenomenon of interest among educators in the field of education, in particular, international and comparative education. This long-lasting debate triggered us to rethink about the effects which the concept has on the source country as well as the destination country. The study explored the perceptions of Highly Skilled Personnel (HSPs) residing in Sub-Saharan Africa on HSPs mobility. Respondents for this study comprised of 43 Sub-Saharan African scholars. Data were collected into two phases. First, all the 43 respondents actively participated in a four-day Online Focused Group Discussion (OFGD) moderated by the researchers. The second phase involved online interviews with 12 members who also participated in the first phase. Findings indicated that the majority of respondents favoured brain circulation. This implies a significant shift from brain drain to brain circulation. The socio-economic and political contexts of countries where respondents came from influenced their responses. We suggest that in the current globalized world, instead of restricting HSPs mobility, Sub-Saharan African countries need to create attractive working environment as a means to retain the best talents and motivate those who left to come back. Furthermore, Sub-Saharan African countries must work with diaspora to improve knowledge and business networks that will enable these countries to improve their economies thereby compensating the cost incurred in educating mobile talents. Finally, brain drain-brain circulation agenda should not be viewed in isolation rather as multidimensional in nature due to its overarching countless influencing factors.

K/Words

Highly Skilled Personnel (HSPs); HSPs mobility; Brain drain; Brain circulation; Sub-Saharan African countries

Author

Patrick Severine Kavenuke

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21 October 2019 [ 11 Months Ago ]

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10. TitleEditorial, Vol. 2, Issue 1
Abstract
Editorial

K/Words

Editorial; MJED; Vol 2

Author

Editor - -

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21 October 2019 [ 11 Months Ago ]

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11. TitleUrudiaji kama Nyenzo ya Ushikamani katika Magazeti ya Kiswahili: Uchambuzi wa Tahariri za Gazeti la Raia Mwema, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Abstract
Ushikamani katika matini hutekelezwa kwa kutumia ala tano zilizo katika viwango viwili vya lugha: urejezi, ubadala, udondoshaji na uunganishaji katika kiwango cha sarufi na uteuzi wa msamiati katika kiwango cha kileksika. Urudiaji ni sehemu ndogo ya ala ya ushikamani katika uteuzi wa msamiati. Kiwango cha ujitokezaji wa ala tofauti katika matini hutofautiana. Kutamalaki kwa baadhi ya ala kuliko nyingine hutofautisha mitindo ya uandishi. Lengo la makala haya ni kuchunguza ikiwa urudiaji ni ala ya ushikamani inayotumika katika uandishi wa magazeti. Tahariri tano za Raia Mwema zilifanyiwa uchambuzi ili kubaini kama urudiaji ni ala inayotumika kujenga ushikamani. Matokeo yanaonesha kwamba tahariri hizo hufanya urudiaji wa neno lilelile, visawe, nusu visawe, neno jumuishi au neno shabihi. Imebainika kwamba, urudiaji wa neno lilelile hutumika zaidi wakati urudiaji wa sinonimia, neno jumuishi na neno shabihi unajitokeza kwa viwango vya chini. Kuhusu uhusiano wa ala na umbali wa utokeaji katika matini kuna matokeo ya aina mbili. Kwa upande mmoja, urudiaji wa neno lilelile ni mkubwa zaidi mwanzoni na mwishoni mwa matini. Kwa upande wa pili, utokeaji wa neno lilelile unatokea kwenye umbali wa kati kwa namna isiyo tabirifu. Hali hii inadokeza kwamba urudiaji kama ala, unaweza kujitokeza katika umbali wowote kutoka kwenye udhanilizi. Pendekezo la makala haya ni kwamba zifanyike tafiti linganishi ili kuonesha uwiano wa ala ya urudiaji na ala zingine za ushikamani katika magazeti mbalimbali ili kutoa ufahamu zaidi wa mitindo ya uandishi wa magazetini kwa upana wake.

K/Words

Ushikamani, urudiaji, Raia Mwema, Tahariri

Author

Gervas A. Kawonga

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09 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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12. TitleThe Challenges Facing the Management of Immigration in Tanzania and Zambia: A case of Tunduma and Nakonde, Vol. 2, Issue 1
Abstract
Immigration is a global development issue impacting on the development trajectories of all countries. Tanzania, for instance, has seen large numbers of illegal immigrants from Burundi, Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Somalia who flee their countries because of political unrest and economic difficulties. Consequently, illegal immigration has been increasing from time to time in Tanzania. This study examined the challenges facing the management of immigration in Tanzania. Specifically, the paper used both qualitative and quantitative approaches to explore the existence and flow of illegal immigrants, causes and the challenges facing the management of illegal immigration in Tanzania and Zambia. The study found the existence of illegal immigration between Zambia and Tanzania. The patterns of flow of illegal immigrants are mainly of Zambia to Tanzania. Such pattern is caused by sharing common and related languages, colonial legacies and trade. The challenges to controlling of illegal immigration include inadequate immigration personnel and immigration control equipment, poor cooperation between coercive apparatus and the civilians and the influx of large population of immigrants. The study concludes that addressing illegal immigration requires collaboration and cooperation between Tanzania and Zambia coercive apparatus and integrating the citizens who are living along the borders.

K/Words

Illegal immigration, Immigrants, Immigration, Tanzania, Zambia

Author

David - Msokwe

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17 June 2020 [ 3 Months Ago ]

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13. TitleChild Marriage among Maasai Girl Students in Tanzania: The Case of Kilosa District, Vol. 2, Issue 1
Abstract
This study explored the reasons for persistence of child marriage among Maasai girl-students in Tanzania. Three research questions guided this study, namely: Why does girl students' marriage among the Maasai community of Tanzania continue to exist? What is the position of education stakeholders in protecting girls from child marriage? What strategies should be taken to address child marriage in the Maasai community? The study employed qualitative research approach where a case study design was used to explore the problem. It adopted interviews, focus group discussion and observations as research methods. Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were employed to get 39 participants who were involved in this study. Data were analysed qualitatively through thematic analysis strategies. The findings revealed that child marriage is still practiced in the Maasai community where the legible age for marriage of Maasai girls range from 6 to 15 years depending on the number of competing men and the economic status of the family of the boy or girl. Society members employ persuasion and pressure, transfer of students, pregnancy and corruption to enable marriage of Maasai girl students. In addition, the findings revealed that Maasai traditions and customs, fear of early pregnancies, corruption and irresponsibility of leaders, poverty and undervaluing of education are the factors contributing to persistence of child marriage among the Maasai girl students. The study recommends that the government in collaboration with other stakeholders should aggressively implement laws protecting children. A close monitoring of local leaders' actions by top government leaders to help combating child marriage is also recommended. Moreover, joint efforts are needed to educate society members and girl-students on the negative impact of child marriage and the importance of girls' education.

K/Words

Child marriage; Maasai Girl Students; girl child's education; Tanzania

Author

Jonathan - Ndaula

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17 June 2020 [ 3 Months Ago ]

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14. TitleEnglish Language Teachers' Understanding of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach in Public Primary Schools in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Abstract
Tanzania implements Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach to the teaching of English subject in its primary schools. However, it is not clear whether or not the subject teachers understand the CLT as an English language pedagogical approach. The study employed qualitative research approach and phenomenology as its design to explore the teachers' understanding of the CLT approach. Five public primary schools selected based on the good performance established from their Standard (STD) Seven National Examinations (NECTA) for four years (2013-2016) were involved. Data were generated through interviews with subject teachers, head teachers, Ward Educational Officers (WEOs) and District Education Quality Assurers (DEQAs); and through Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) with STD VI pupils. The findings indicate that teachers teaching English subject, notwithstanding that the subject Syllabus required them to implement CLT principles and techniques, they were not able to associate the principles and techniques stated in the Syllabus with the concept of CLT approach. Although a few subject teachers were able to explain the techniques stated in the subject Syllabus, education supervisors emphasised that teachers still were not able to apply the techniques as required. It concludes that CLT approach was adopted for implementation in public primary schools before teachers had been adequately oriented to it. Thus, when the new approach is to be adopted, teachers should first be adequately trained.

K/Words

Communicative Language Teaching; English Language Teaching; Language Teacher Training; Language Curriculum

Author

Philpo Gwevu John

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07 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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15. TitleThe Socio-Economic Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Livelihoods in Southern Tanzania: The Case of Tunduru District., Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
This paper analyses the impact of rural-urban migration on rural livelihoods. It specifically looks at such impacts as jobs or other sources of income which give someone the money to buy the goods and services needed in the daily life. The study was undertaken in Tunduru district in southern Tanzania. Research methods used included structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observation, focus group discussions and literature review. The ᵪ2 test indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between migration and support received for rural livelihoods as the calculated value of 9.609 was higher than the table or critical value of 3.841 at p> 0.05. A high proportion of families with migrants received support compared to those without. From this, the paper recommends that in areas lagging behind in development, rural -urban migration can be considered as a strategy for poverty reduction. This, however, does not preclude other strategies for reducing poverty in rural areas including improved agricultural techniques and government support for non- farm activities.

K/Words

Socio-Economic Impact; Rural-Urban Migration; Rural livelihoods; migration; Tanzania

Author

Asnath Alberto Malekela

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10 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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16. TitlePre-marital fertility tendency in Dodoma city council, Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Abstract
Premarital fertility which is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa is associated with future marriage breakdown, dropping out of school, illegal abortion, child abandonment, mortality among the new born babies as well as maternal mortality. This study conducted a demographic survey from a sample of 140 females of reproductive age employed in the 22 service providing group companies in the premises of Dodoma City Council. Questionnaire, semi-structured interview and observation were used to collect information from among the respondents. The findings reveal the presence of high premarital fertility so much that, 75 per cent of the respondents have children but 62.9 per cent of them got their first birth before the first marriage. Also, the girls beget the children at an average of 21 years of their age, however, the mean age of the first birth 18.6 years. A number of reasons for this phenomenon were identified. These include poverty, level of education and the level of contraceptive use. The findings suggest the need to scale up government efforts to address premarital fertility in Tanzania.

K/Words

Premarital fertility; First birth; First marriage; Dodoma City Council

Author

Paul Jacob Nyangusi

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09 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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17. TitleContribution of cash transfers to poverty reduction: Children's access to schooling and household health services in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cash transfers (CTs) to poverty reduction through the improvement of children's schooling and household health status in Tanzania. CTs are considered a popular social policy instrument to address the widespread poverty and encourage human capital investments in the education of children and household health. However, few studies have rigorously assessed their effectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Tanzania. To fill the information gap, a case study was conducted by which both primary and secondary data were respectively collected through the administration of field data collection instruments and desk review of various documents on CTs in connection with children's education and household health status. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed to collect data from households receiving CTs and some key informants. Content analysis was used for the qualitative data while the quantitative data were analysed by the help of IBM SPSS Statistics computer programme version 22. Descriptive statistics was computed to obtain frequencies and percentages. Cross tabulation was also employed to establish the relationship between variables at 5% level of significance. The study results showed a positive relationship between the average amount of CTs provided and the amount spent on children's education. Furthermore, it was found that all the respondents registered their households' members with Community Health Fund by using the CTs provided. The paper concludes that CTs play a vital role in improving children's schooling and health status of the household members, thus contributing to poverty reduction. It is recommended that Cash Transfer Programmes (CTPs) should go beyond giving CTs to the targeted households.

K/Words

Poverty; cash transfers; education; health; children; Tanzania

Author

Venosa A. Mushi

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10 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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18. TitleDynamics of Gender Relations and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Pastoralists in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
This paper is based on a study conducted in Kilosa District, Tanzania. It assessed how pastoralists adapt to climate change with respect to the existing inequalities in gender relations. It adopted a cross-sectional research design where both primary and secondary data deployed using questionnaire and interview and desk review of various documents respectively on gender relations and climate change adaptation strategies. The data were analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences computer software and the analysis was largely descriptive. The study results show that inequality in gender relations exists among the pastoralists in terms of household division of labour, ownership of resources and decision-making. Also, strategies such as crop farming, selling of animals, migration, shifting to new areas and fencing reserve pasture were used to adapt to climate change. The paper concludes that despite the strategies used to adapt to climate change impacts, the existing gender inequalities among the study population renders women vulnerable to climate change impacts. It is suggested that the government should institute gender sensitive policies and strategies on household division of labour, ownership of resources and decision-making to trim down women's vulnerability to climate change impact.

K/Words

Climate change; decision-making; adaptation strategies; gender; Tanzania

Author

Mamkwe Caludia Edward

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10 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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20. TitleAssessment of natural resources use conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania: A review, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
This review paper dwells on assessing natural resources use conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania. Different documents with information on farmers-pastoralists conflicts in Tanzania were reviewed. The resources considered in this paper were land, water and forests (pasture land). Land is the main resource for the livelihoods of both farmers and pastoralists. Different activities are performed on land including grazing and farming; these activities are not compatible to each other. This paper revealed different causes of land use conflicts such as shortage of grazing land and farming, climate change, drought, decline of soil fertility and lack of clear boundaries between pastoralists and farmers' villages. Results of farmers-pastoralists conflicts include damage of crops, destruction of property, killing of animals and human beings and insecurity. The study findings show that village conflict resolution committee under village leaders plays a major role in conflict mitigation. This study recommends mediations and resolutions such as formulation of land use planning, intensive farming, reducing number of animals, enactment of villages natural resources management by-laws, enforcing laws and policies, strengthening outreach services to farmers and pastoralist to change their negative perception so that they can realise the economic benefits of natural resources if managed and used sustainably.

K/Words

Conflicts; Farmers; Land use; Natural resources; Pastoralists

Author

Emmanuel Patroba Mhache

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10 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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21. TitleIntegrating Geo-information through Citizen Scientists, Sensors and Actuators: Opportunities and Challenges in the Lake Victoria Basin, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Abstract
Communicating information with location data is considered to be of higher value and informative. While data collected, processed and shared through citizen science, sensing and actuation is on increase, the quality has continuously been questioned. This paper identifies opportunities and challenges in engaging with wide spectrum of citizens in using geo-coding tools to increase the quality of data and effectively inform water resources sustainability. The study was conducted in Mwanza region, a potential area within the Lake Victoria Basin of Tanzania. Focusing on formal institutions of citizen engagement in irrigated lands in the study area, data were collected through questionnaires, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Data were analysed using NVivo, Quantum GIS and IBM SPSS. Results indicated that the most prominent opportunities were the presence of substantial number of semi-literate and literate persons of age most active in citizen engagement programs and increasing utilisation of renewable sources of energy especially solar energy. The most prominent challenges were inadequate ownership and access to ICT devices that support geo-coding, inadequate access to grid electricity and poor rural mobile network to support usability of devices. Discussion of results was based on the characteristics of citizen engagement of inclusivity, transparency, breadth of coverage, depth of coverage, passion, scope, scale and relevance. The study concludes that despite presence of geo-coding platform that can engage wider public in managing their water resources in the Lake Victoria Basin, there are more challenges than opportunities to realise this goal.

K/Words

Water resources; Lake Victoria Basin; informing; geo-coding; citizen engagement; citizen Science

Author

Hector J. Mongi

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09 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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22. TitleDoes movie subtitling enhance second language learning in Tanzania's secondary schools? Insights from English subtitles of Bongo Movie, Vol. 3, Issue 1
Abstract
Audio-visual materials such as subtitled films have been shown to play an important role in language learning. This paper examines the usefulness of the subtitled movies to enhance second language learning. A focus is on Bongo Movies, a modern film industry in Tanzania and its influence among the Swahili learners of English as a second language. To explain the situation, a subtitled Bongo Movie clip was given to 26 form three students from Makongo and Jitegemee secondary schools in Dar es Salaam. Thereafter, focus group discussions with students were conducted. The findings show that subtitled movies helped students to learn some new vocabularies from the clip which happens consciously or subconsciously; and increase their reading speed. It was also found that students with good English proficiency did not find Bongo Movies with English subtitles useful learning tool. The study therefore, calls for more research on the interface of subtitling and second language learning.

K/Words

Subtitling; Bongo Movies; Second Language Learning; Tanzania

Author

Anselmina Albin Shinyaka

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09 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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23. TitlePlanning for Agricultural Space in Developing Countries and the Changing Nature of Shifting Cultivation among Smallholder Farmers: A Case of Ludewa District in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
The nature of shifting cultivation has kept on changing to reflect the ongoing local conflicts in land used for agricultural production. This study examines the manifestation of change in space used for shifting cultivation among smallholder farmers as a result of planning for agricultural space in four villages in Ludewa District. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires, in-depth interview, satellite images and field visits were the major instruments of data collection. The data were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The study found that change in land cover reflects the changing area used for shifting cultivation. Besides, the study found a reduction in fallow period to as short as three to five years. In addition, we found that even though, the shifting cultivation was prevalent in the study area, it was common in areas allocated by village governments. The study concludes that space for shifting cultivation has not only shrunk but also its nature has kept on changing in response to existing socio-economic factors, especially government policies on re-settlement and promotion of cash crops. The paper recommends that any planning for agricultural landscape should consider the changing nature of shifting cultivation, especially on the use of the so called 'abandoned lands'.

K/Words

Planning for agricultural space; shifting cultivation; smallholder farmers; Ludewa; Tanzania.

Author

Cosmas B.M. Haule

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10 July 2020 [ 2 Months Ago ]

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