Mkwawa Journal of Education and Development (MJED)
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MJED | New Articles
New Articles in Volume No. 3, Issue No. 2 (2019)
TitleContribution of cash transfers to poverty reduction: Children's access to schooling and household health services in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of cash transfers (CTs) to poverty reduction through the improvement of children's schooling and household health status in Tanzania. CTs are considered a popular social policy instrument to address the widespread poverty and encourage human capital investments in the education of children and household health. However, few studies have rigorously assessed their effectiveness in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in Tanzania. To fill the information gap, a case study was conducted by which both primary and secondary data were respectively collected through the administration of field data collection instruments and desk review of various documents on CTs in connection with children's education and household health status. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were employed to collect data from households receiving CTs and some key informants. Content analysis was used for the qualitative data while the quantitative data were analysed by the help of IBM SPSS Statistics computer programme version 22. Descriptive statistics was computed to obtain frequencies and percentages. Cross tabulation was also employed to establish the relationship between variables at 5% level of significance. The study results showed a positive relationship between the average amount of CTs provided and the amount spent on children's education. Furthermore, it was found that all the respondents registered their households' members with Community Health Fund by using the CTs provided. The paper concludes that CTs play a vital role in improving children's schooling and health status of the household members, thus contributing to poverty reduction. It is recommended that Cash Transfer Programmes (CTPs) should go beyond giving CTs to the targeted households.

K/Words

Poverty; cash transfers; education; health; children; Tanzania

Author

Venosa A. Mushi

Uploaded

10 July 2020
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TitlePlanning for Agricultural Space in Developing Countries and the Changing Nature of Shifting Cultivation among Smallholder Farmers: A Case of Ludewa District in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
The nature of shifting cultivation has kept on changing to reflect the ongoing local conflicts in land used for agricultural production. This study examines the manifestation of change in space used for shifting cultivation among smallholder farmers as a result of planning for agricultural space in four villages in Ludewa District. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey. Questionnaires, in-depth interview, satellite images and field visits were the major instruments of data collection. The data were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The study found that change in land cover reflects the changing area used for shifting cultivation. Besides, the study found a reduction in fallow period to as short as three to five years. In addition, we found that even though, the shifting cultivation was prevalent in the study area, it was common in areas allocated by village governments. The study concludes that space for shifting cultivation has not only shrunk but also its nature has kept on changing in response to existing socio-economic factors, especially government policies on re-settlement and promotion of cash crops. The paper recommends that any planning for agricultural landscape should consider the changing nature of shifting cultivation, especially on the use of the so called 'abandoned lands'.

K/Words

Planning for agricultural space; shifting cultivation; smallholder farmers; Ludewa; Tanzania.

Author

Cosmas B.M. Haule

Uploaded

10 July 2020
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TitleDynamics of Gender Relations and Climate Change Adaptation Strategies among Pastoralists in Tanzania, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
This paper is based on a study conducted in Kilosa District, Tanzania. It assessed how pastoralists adapt to climate change with respect to the existing inequalities in gender relations. It adopted a cross-sectional research design where both primary and secondary data deployed using questionnaire and interview and desk review of various documents respectively on gender relations and climate change adaptation strategies. The data were analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences computer software and the analysis was largely descriptive. The study results show that inequality in gender relations exists among the pastoralists in terms of household division of labour, ownership of resources and decision-making. Also, strategies such as crop farming, selling of animals, migration, shifting to new areas and fencing reserve pasture were used to adapt to climate change. The paper concludes that despite the strategies used to adapt to climate change impacts, the existing gender inequalities among the study population renders women vulnerable to climate change impacts. It is suggested that the government should institute gender sensitive policies and strategies on household division of labour, ownership of resources and decision-making to trim down women's vulnerability to climate change impact.

K/Words

Climate change; decision-making; adaptation strategies; gender; Tanzania

Author

Mamkwe Caludia Edward

Uploaded

10 July 2020
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TitleAssessment of natural resources use conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania: A review, Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
This review paper dwells on assessing natural resources use conflicts between farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania. Different documents with information on farmers-pastoralists conflicts in Tanzania were reviewed. The resources considered in this paper were land, water and forests (pasture land). Land is the main resource for the livelihoods of both farmers and pastoralists. Different activities are performed on land including grazing and farming; these activities are not compatible to each other. This paper revealed different causes of land use conflicts such as shortage of grazing land and farming, climate change, drought, decline of soil fertility and lack of clear boundaries between pastoralists and farmers' villages. Results of farmers-pastoralists conflicts include damage of crops, destruction of property, killing of animals and human beings and insecurity. The study findings show that village conflict resolution committee under village leaders plays a major role in conflict mitigation. This study recommends mediations and resolutions such as formulation of land use planning, intensive farming, reducing number of animals, enactment of villages natural resources management by-laws, enforcing laws and policies, strengthening outreach services to farmers and pastoralist to change their negative perception so that they can realise the economic benefits of natural resources if managed and used sustainably.

K/Words

Conflicts; Farmers; Land use; Natural resources; Pastoralists

Author

Emmanuel Patroba Mhache

Uploaded

10 July 2020
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TitleThe Socio-Economic Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on Rural Livelihoods in Southern Tanzania: The Case of Tunduru District., Vol. 3, Issue 2
Abstract
This paper analyses the impact of rural-urban migration on rural livelihoods. It specifically looks at such impacts as jobs or other sources of income which give someone the money to buy the goods and services needed in the daily life. The study was undertaken in Tunduru district in southern Tanzania. Research methods used included structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, observation, focus group discussions and literature review. The 2 test indicated that there was a statistically significant relationship between migration and support received for rural livelihoods as the calculated value of 9.609 was higher than the table or critical value of 3.841 at p> 0.05. A high proportion of families with migrants received support compared to those without. From this, the paper recommends that in areas lagging behind in development, rural -urban migration can be considered as a strategy for poverty reduction. This, however, does not preclude other strategies for reducing poverty in rural areas including improved agricultural techniques and government support for non- farm activities.

K/Words

Socio-Economic Impact; Rural-Urban Migration; Rural livelihoods; migration; Tanzania

Author

Asnath Alberto Malekela

Uploaded

10 July 2020
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